Wednesday, 29 April 2015

Complete Information and analysis on TU-160 BLACKJACK

Heavy multimode strategic bomber with variable sweep wing. Created in OKB MMZ "Experience" Tupolev, chief designer from 1975 to 2010, Valentin Bliznyuk. The aircraft in general is similar to the multi-project bomber M-18 OKB V. Myasishev. The original version of the Tu-160 had a wing ogival shape and design based on the Tu-144 (1969-1972 GG). Preliminary research and development on the Tu-160 with a variable geometry wing began in 1972. Design of the final version - articles 70, Tu-160M ​​project, the plane "K" started in 1975 by order of the USSR on June 26, 1974 and Resolution CM USSR N 1040-348 of 19/12/1975, the draft design of a full-size layout and the creation of the Tu-160 - 1976-1977 GG

Tu-160 - BLACKJACK, boom refueling released, 21.03.2008 (Photo Sergei Brovko, ).

Tu-160, "Alexander Novikov," board №12 Identification No RF-94109 is probably Engels, 2013 (photo - Vadim, ).

Tu-160 "Valery Chkalov" (publication - 2012, photo - V.Savitsky, ).

The second prototype of the Tu-160 (70-03) for the air show MAKS-1995, Zhukovsky, 08/27/1995 (photo Paul nann, )

The layout of the Tu-160 was approved in late 1977 Production of the first three prototypes (70-01 cars for flight tests, 70-02 for static tests, 70-03 - pre-production aircraft) started in 1977, MMZ "Experience" (production of the fuselage - Kazan aircraft plant, wing and stabilizer - Novosibirsk Aircraft Plant im.V.Chkalova sash gruzootseke - Voronezh aircraft factory, the chassis - the Gorky aircraft plant).At the same time started the preparation of series production at the Kazan aircraft factory №22 (initially deploy planiroalos proizodstvo at Ulyanovsk aviazovode). In May 1980, a prototype was built 70-01 and moved to LII airfield in Zhukovsky. Final assembly of the aircraft completed in January 1981 and started ground testing aircraft. Roll-out of the plane onto the tarmac 70-01 - August 18, 1981 Check systems and equipment commenced October 22, 1981 and November 14, 1981 under the control of the crew B.I.Veremeya plane made ​​the first run. The first photo in the West made ​​on board a commercial aircraft taking off from the airport Bykovo 

November 25, 1981 - the plane was named RAM-P ("Ramenskoye" unidentified sample techniques №16). The first flight of the prototype (article 70-01) - 18 December 1981 of (crew B.I.Veremeya, copilot S.T.Agapov, navigators - M.M.Kozel, A.V.Eremenko). Started production of the two experimental series (8 aircraft) at the Kazan aircraft plant. Home Test - 1983 First flight of the Tu-160 pre-series (70-03) - October 6, 1984 (crew S.T.Agapova). The first flight of the first production of the Tu-160 (V.V.Pavlova crew, the plane 01-01 of the first test series) - 10.10.1984, at the second (№01-02) - 16.03.1985, at the third (№02- 01) - 25.12.1985, at the fourth (№02-02) - 15.08.1986, the Tu-160 (№70-01) first reached the speed of sound in the test in February 1985. In the tests lost one aircraft ( №01-02, spring 1987, the crew ejected). 

The first two Tu-160 experimental series came in the 184th Guards YES Priluki Ukraine on April 17, 1987 before the completion of state tests. Large-scale production of the Tu-160C (name of the series) in the factory in Kazan Gorbunova - May 1987 state tests Tu-160 conducted in 1989 (completed in the middle of the year, made ​​4 missile launches X 55). Data on formal acceptance of the Tu-160 into service before 1991 do not. The aircraft set 44 world records (see. Site FAI ). By default, the serial Tu-160. The message on the website of the Ministry of Defense of Russia on 07.02.2012, states that one Tu-160 passes alterations in the modification of the Tu-160M ​​on one of the Russian military-industrial complex (probably at the Kazan aircraft plant ).

Model multimode bomber M-18 OKB Myasishcheva project, 1970-1972 GG
(Gordon E., Tu-160. M., Polygon Press, 2003)
General view of the projections of the Tu-160 of the draft design and a model created in the development of conceptual design, 1975 (E. Gordon, the Tu-160. M., Polygon Press, 2003)
The first image of the Tu-160 known in the West - the same "satellite" snapshot of the Tu-160 (made with wilted civil aircraft taking off from the airport Bykovo November 25, 1981, DoD USA)

The design of the airplane - integrated circuits glider, the differential all-moving stabilizer and all-moving upper part of the keel. Two compartment placing payloads are tandem (one behind the other). Basic materials glider - Ti - alloys from 4 (the central supporting beam fuselage 12.4 m length and 2.1 m wide, up to 20% by weight of the airframe), heat-treated aluminum alloys, B-95-T2, AC-4 and HT-6, steel alloys and composite materials (ok.3% by weight of the structure). 

The hydraulic systems of the aircraft used by major oil SP-50, the system 4-channel with a working pressure of 280 kg / cm. The aircraft is equipped with a toilet, a kitchen, bed. Radar absorbing coating is applied to the inputs of air intakes dvigeteley (graphite) and the nose of the aircraft (special paint on an organic basis), glazing made ​​with mesh filters, screened motor. The aircraft is equipped with a receiver refueling system of "hose-cone." The mass production of airframe components manufactured - the wings and engine compartment - Voronezh aircraft factory, feathers and air intakes - Irkutsk aircraft factory, the chassis - Kuibyshev Assembly Plant, the fuselage. center section and units of turning wing consoles - Kazan aircraft plant.

Assembling the model and strength analogue Tu-160 on a scale of 1: 3 to MMZ "Experience", 1976-1977 GG (Gordon E., Tu-160. M., Polygon Press, 2003)
Cabin crew inside during the construction of the first instance of the Tu-160 - the plane 70-01, 1977 
(Gordon E., Tu-160. M., Polygon Press, 2003)
Assembling the fuselage of the first copy of the Tu-160 - the plane 70-01 in the shop MMZ "Experience"
(Gordon E., Tu-160. M., Polygon Press, 2003) Air intakes and main landing gear of the Tu-160 "Valery Chkalov" on Engels airbase, beginning in November 2012 (photo - RostovSpotter, source ).

Control of the aircraft is carried out analog FBWCS with 4x redundant channels of pitch, roll and yaw, as well as to the implementation of the principle of e-sustainability. The modernization of the type of mod.2006 is likely install digital FBWCS.
- Preliminary design of the Tu-160 - 4 x turbofans NK-25 OKB CMH "Trud" chief designer ND Kuznetsov (Kuibyshev)
Tu-160 - 4 x three-shaft turbofans NK-32 (a product "P") EDO CMH "Trud" chief designer ND Kuznetsov (Kuibyshev - later - Samara).Home R & D engine - 1970 tests since 1977 on the Tu-95 Series - 1986 engine thrust of 14,000 kg, afterburner - 25000 kg. Engines equipped with adjustable air intake (at B-1B - it's not), reduced radar and infrared signature of the engine and fuel consumption. The engine management system with the hydro electric duplication (in the modernization process can be replaced by a digital control system). In 1986, experimental and serial Tu-160 installed engines experienced a series of recent tests CMH "Trud".

     Engine length - 6000 mm
     diameter (for air inlet) - 1460 mm
     diameter turbine - 1000 mm
     Weight of dry - 3,400 kg
     Weight of compressor engine - 365 kg
     Stagnation temperature gas turbine - 1375 degrees C
     Specific fuel consumption of the engine (speed <1M) - 0.72-0.73 kg / kg per hour
     Specific fuel consumption of the engine (speed> 1M) - 1.7 kg / kg per hour
     Engine life - 250 hours (the first prototypes and series) - increased to 750 hours by 1991.
     The total service life as of 2007 - 3000 hours to 1000 hours lifespan overhaul 
In the niche of the left main landing gear strut placed gas turbine auxiliary power unit TA-12 provides power to the aircraft.
- A modernized Tu-160 (2006) - 4 x upgraded turbofan NC-32 - NC-321 engine upgrade started in 2004 Samara OAO "SNTK im.Kuznetsova." The first new engines are ready in April 2006, significantly increased engine life and improved reliability. By mid-2006 engines we have gone through all kinds of tests, including Flight government. In December 1995, prepared by the plane T-144LL (№77114) of which was held in April 1999 a joint Russian-American research program. On the plane were installed 4 NK-321. The first series of flights (19 flights) completed in February 1998. The second series of flights to the achievement of speed of 2 m was conducted from September 1998 to April 1999

Power is provided by an auxiliary power unit TA-12 and 4 x drive-integrated alternator., as well as battery (emergency power supply).

TTH aircraft :
Crew - 4 people. (Two pilots, a navigator and an operator located in two cabins).

Length - 54.095 m
             - Take-off / landing - 55.7 m (on the conceptual design)
             - Take-off / landing - 57.7 m (in the series)
             - at cruising - 50.7 m
             - maximum speed - 35.6 m
span stabilizer:
- 13.75 m (prototype "70-01" and the first pre-series)
- 13.25 m
Height - 13.1 (13.2) m
Wing area:
     - 293.15 m (base)
     - 400 m (with a minimum sweep)
     - 370 m (at maksimlanoy sweep)
The area of ​​the rotary wing - 189.83 sq.m.
Area flapperonov - 9 sq.m.
Area flaps - 39.6 m
Area slats - 22.16 sq.m.
Area spoilers - 11.76 m
keel area - 42.025 sq.m.
The area of ​​the turning part of the keel - 19.398 sq.m.
Wing sweep - 20-35-65 degrees. in different modes
Sweep stabilizer - 44 degrees. (Leading edge)
Sweep keel - 47 degrees. (Leading edge)
track chassis - 5.4 m
Base Chassis - 17.88 m
Dimensions main wheels - 1260 x 485 mm (2 to 6 bogie wheels)
Dimensions nose wheel - 1080 x 400 mm (1 truck, 2 wheel)
Dimensions weapons compartment - 2 compartment clearance 11.28 x 1.92 x 1.9 m
length of the motor gondola (without wedge) - 13.78 m

Take-off weight:
- 260 000 kg (according to the preliminary design 1976)
- 275 000 kg (according to some sources - up to 280000-285000 kg)
Take-off weight is normal - 267 600 kg
Take-off weight for the aerodrome 1 class - 185000 kg
Landing Weight - 140000-155000 kg
Empty weight:
- 103 000 kg (according to the preliminary design 1976)
- 110,000 kg of
thrust-weight ratio - 0.36 (B-1 B - 0.25) 

The mass of the fuel:
- 148 000 kg (according to the preliminary design 1976)
- 140 600 kg (148,000 kg - for dr.dannym)
- 171000 kg (the maximum according to Gordon)
Payload weight:
                       - The rate (at maximum range of the project) - 9000 kg
                       - The norm - 16330 kg
                       - the maximum actual - 22400-22500 kg
                       - the maximum allowable - 40,000 kg (on the project and actually according to some)
                       - The maximum allowable - 45,000 kg (according dr.dannym, B-1B - 34000 kg)

Maximum speed at the height (of the project) - 2300-2500 km / h (B-1B - 1328 km / h)
Maximum speed at low altitude (on the project) - 1,000 km / h (B-1B - 1160 km / h)
Maximum speed at an altitude of 13,000 meters in afterburner engine operation at an angle of 65 degrees of sweep. - 2200 km / h (2 M)
Maximum speed eksluatatsionnaya - 2000 km / h (the limit for combat units in order to preserve the resource glider) 
cruising speed maximum - 1.5 M
Maximum speed at low altitude - 1030 km / h
Average speed record on a closed route of 1000 km with a mass of 30,000 kg Mo - 1720 km / h
average speed record on a closed route of 2000 km with a takeoff weight of 275,000 kg - 1675 km / h
speed takeoff - 270-370 km / h (at a weight - 150 -275 m) 

The rate of landing:
- 260-280 km / h (at a weight - 140-166 m)
- 260-300 km / h (at a weight - 140-155 m)
Breakthrough defense on speed:
     - High altitude (Hi) - 1,9 M
     - at low altitude (Lo) with automatic terrain following - 1 M
of climb - 60-70 m / s 

ceiling practical:
- 18,000-20,000 meters (project)
- 15,000 m (18,000 m according to other sources)
in the ceiling of a record 275,000 kg of weight - 11250 m
Flight distance (without refueling)
- Mode Hi-Hi-Hi, speed <1M, weight 9000 kg Mo (on the project) - 14000-16000 km (B-1B - 12,000 km)
- Mode of Hi-Lo-Hi (including 2,000 km at an altitude of 50-200 m) or at a rate of> 1 M (project) - 12000-13000 km 
- Mode Hi-Hi-Hi, Mo 22400 kg weight with a maximum take-off weight - 12300 km (B-1B - 10400 km)
- Maximum MON - 10500 km
Radyus actions with one refueling regime for Lo-Lo-Lo or Hi-Lo-Hi - 7300 km
range of the maximum at a cruising speed of 1.5 M - 2000 km
Combat radius without refueling weapons systems (including CBRC range X-55) - 9150 km
Takeoff - 900-2200 m (mass of 150-275 tons)
traveled - 1200-1600 m (mass of 140-155 tons)

The maximum time of flight without refueling - 12:00 50 min (1989, the crew of Valery Gorgol - commander of the 184th Gv.TBAP, g.Priluki)
Standard flight time - 12-15 hours
maximum flight duration - 21 hours (2009, 2 refueling) and 23 hours (09-10.06.2010, at 2 refueling)
Maximum operating overload - 2,5 G (2G according to Gordon)
Efforts to prepare for the flight one hour flight - 64 people / hour
Time to prepare the aircraft for the flight - 3 days (1987, further reduced)
The area of ​​the drogue parachute (3 pieces) - 105 sq.m.
Armament (in 2 bomb bay with revolving ejection PU):
The initial draft of the Tu-160 (1975 YG):
     1) 2 x H-45, H-45M later
     2) 24 x 15 x
     3) 10-12 x X-55
     4) 10-12 x X-15M
     5) conventional bombs, nuclear bombs, UAB laser seeker and TV, sea mines.
At the request of the Air Force involves the installation of a defensive artillery gun with a gun GSH-6-30.
The basic version of the Tu-160 (1981, the project):
     1) x 12 AS-15 (X-55 / X-55M) on two revolving ISU-6-5U
     2) 24 x AS-16 (   X-15 ) on four revolving ISU (option arms are not brought to realization)
     3) 4 x nuclear bomb capacity of 5, 20 (?), 50 (?) Matthew
     4) 16 x FAB-1000
     5) 22 x 750 FAB-
     6) CC-1500
Really made Tu-160 (1987-2009 years):
     1) x 12 AS-15 (X-55 / X-55SM) at two ISU-6-5U - basic version of armaments, state tests of the system - 1989 (basic version - X-55SM, adopted by the Air Force 1986) . By 2005, the portion of aircraft converted for use Kh-555 (for example, the Tu-160 "Pavel Taran" is probably just "Alexander Golovanov" and "Alexander Molodchy").
     2) 12 x AS-16 ( X-15 ) in two ISU-6-5U (not in actual combat units)
In the process of modernization along the lines mod.2006, in the range of weapons to be included CBRC X-555, X-101 and X-102, aeroballistic rockets AS-16 ( X-15 ), svobodnopadayuschie conventional bombs and UAB.
Aircraft weapons systems and patterns of use of weapons designed in conjunction with GosNIIAS. From Tupolev supervised the creation of complex weapons L.N.Bazenkov. The main means of destruction (CBRC) developed MKB "Raduga" A.Ya.Bereznyaka (chief designer Seleznev IS).
Equipment :
The main developer of avionics - NII "Elektroavtomatika" (Leningrad, chief designer - E.S.Lipin).
Sighting and navigation system Tu-160 includes a dual-channel astroinertial navigation system K-042K, astrovizir 1cm AV development and production of CDB "Arsenal" (Kiev), automatic terrain following system, satellite navigation system GLONASS (accurate to 10 20 m, the modified production system MKB "Kompas" since 2007 will be installed in all airplanes when upgrading) and multi-channel digital communication system. Total aircraft systems involved more than 100 onboard computer, including the navigator onboard computer 8 and the plate-kursoprokladchik PA-3 (with a moving map, probably digital?). Cockpit equipped with a standard set of equipment with traditional displays and dials the type Tu-22M3 . Instead, use the wheel control handle (joystick) similar to the fighter.

The cockpit of the Tu-160 "Valery Chkalov" on Engels airbase, the beginning of November 2012 (photo - RostovSpotter, source ).

Astrovizir AV 1cm - measures the angular coordinates of the stars to the 4th magnitude in the daylight sky background with an error of less than 0.01 degrees.

Astrovizir AV 1cm (Buzanov VI Enterprise "CKB" Arsenal "- the improvement and creation of new opto-electronic aircraft equipment. // Aviation and time. Special edition, 2003).
Sighting and navigation complex "Obzor-K" Including a bombing and navigation radar "Search" (the detection range of the major objectives of radio-purposes with the high altitude - 600 km or more), and electro-optical bombsight OPB-15T "Thunderstorm" (daytime bombing or the bombing in low light, T - probably "TV"). The modernization of the aircraft can get laser pointer for use air bombs with laser seeker to greater heights. The control system missiles "Octopus-SM" (introduction to the GOS targeting missiles before launch, enforcing CBRC).
The radar visibility of the aircraft dropped additional measures for applying to the nose of a special paint on an organic basis, radar absorbing black graphite film on the air inlets and air ducts, shielding certain engine components, and an introduction to the cabin windows antiradar mesh filters. Some of these activities performed in line units.
On-board defense system (GER) "Baikal" detects and classifies any enemy radar, thermal target (teplopelengator "Spark" is located at the rear of the fuselage point) and provides for the use of active electronic warfare, submarines and passive IR-traps (EW equipment located in the tail cone ). Refinements GER completed in April 1990
The system of in-flight refueling. Ejection seat K-36DM development NGOs "Star" (chief designer G.I.Severin) with backs equipped with pulsating air cushions (in series production). Individual system bailout and forced the entire crew (starting from any workstation). Bailout is possible in the "0-0" (zero speed, zero altitude) - after improvements in the process of development (originally - the minimum speed of the bailout - 75 km / h). When the flight crew altitude profiles using high-altitude suits-suits "Cormorant" (there are only prototypes - according to Butovo, 1995). In standard mode - helmet ZS-7B or ZS-7AS.
High-altitude suit, spacesuit "Cormorant" (Gordon E., Tu-160. M., Polygon Press, 2003)

The upgraded complex avionics created jointly by JSC "Tupolev", Federal State Unitary Enterprise "State Research Institute of the AU", Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Design Bureau" Elektroavtomatika "them. Efimova" and GLITS them. Chkalov. 26.03.2013, in the media reported on the completion of ground tests oboroudovaniya complex. As a result of complex HIL test stand specialists received the opinion of airworthiness flight tests. They are expected to be held in 2013. Work on updating bortoborudovaniya conducted in the first phase of modernization of the Tu-160.
Tu-160 (1969-1972 years) - the first project of the contest 1972 - based bomber Tu-144.
Tu-160M ​​preliminary design (1972) - Study options for the design of aircraft with variable geometry wing.
Tu-160M ​​(1975) - the second draft of the Tu-160 igmenyaemoy-wing (the name on the stage of preliminary study of the project).
Tu-160 (product 70) BLACKJACK / RAM-P (first flight - 1981) - IG wing bomber pilot series.
The first copy of the Tu-160 - the aircraft on the basis of 70-01 FRI in Zhukovsky in the beginning of the test 
(Gordon E., Tu-160. M., Polygon Press, 2003)
Tu-160 - a carrier UAV "Raven" (a project mid-1970s) - the initial stage of the project Tu-160 airplane planned to use as a carrier of strategic supersonic unmanned reconnaissance aircraft "The Raven" (Tupolev) with a starting weight 6300 kg. Design discontinued in the mid-1970s due to the closure of the program creating a UAV.
Tu-160P (project mid-1970s) - heavy fighter escort armed with missiles "air-air" large and medium-range missiles. The project is not implemented.
Tu-160C BLACKJACK (1987) - the production version of the bomber.
Tu-160PP (project mid-1980s) - jammer aircraft, according to the design requirements of the Air Force assumed at the stage of creating the project Tu-160. The full design began in the mid-1980s, built a full-size layout. The project is not implemented.
TU-160 modernization (draft, 1980) - in the process of elaboration of the modernization of the Tu-160 was assumed to shift to more fuel-efficient engines NK-74, replacement of equipment and retrofitting more modern weapons. Probably this upgrading was planned until 1996 (our assumption).
Tu-160B (draft, 1980) - a variant of the Tu-160 engines on liquid hydrogen with a modified design of the fuselage. The project is not implemented.
Tu-160K "Merlin" (project 1983-1984) - Project equipment Tu-160 aircraft with two ballistic missile launch "Merlin" ("Southern") weighing 24.4 tons.
Combat radius of the complex - 10,000 km
Tu-160M ​​(draft, 1990) - the project Tu-160 with modified compartments Mon - medium KR 2 hypersonic X-90. The existence of the project has not been confirmed.
Tu-160SK (draft, 1992) - the aircraft carrier rocket "Burlak" and "Burlak-Diana" to launch a satellite into orbit.
Tu-161 (draft, 1990) - the project of modernization and development of the Tu-160 as a multi-mode aircraft carrier CBRC.
PAK DA (draft, 1999) - PAK DA, the design appearance of aircraft in a variety of CB started in 1999. The Tupolev plane PAK DA is designed on the basis of the Tu-160 (according to media reports).
TU-160 modernization / Tu-160M ​​(2006-2007) - a modernized version of the Tu-160 series (the name "Tu-160M" is used in some online media) - originally planned to modernize fleet of Tu-160 to 1996 ., but actually the modernization started after 2000 changed the composition of avionics, upgraded engines NK-32 / SC-321 (to increase the resources, increased reliability tests completed in 2006), aircraft can carry missiles X-555 and X 101/102. In addition, the upgraded version can high-precision (accuracy - 20 m) use conventional bombs and svobodnopadayuschie UAB (formerly apparently only declaratively). As part of the new avionics are installed on-board computer, satellite navigation system development MKB "Kompas", increased range and endurance, upgraded airborne defense. The first plane is the plane passed the modernization of serial №02-02 "Valentin Bliznyuk" (after modernization entered the Air Force July 5, 2006).The modernization program is declared to the planned completion in 2015 (data from December 2009), all declared the modernization of 15 aircraft. In a statement on the website of the Ministry of Defense of Russia on 07.02.2012, it states that one Tu-160 passes alterations in the modification of the Tu-160M ​​on one of the Russian military-industrial complex (probably at the Kazan aircraft plant). 26.03.2013 was informed of the completion of ground tests of the modernized complex avionics for the aircraft. For 2013 it is scheduled to begin flight testing complex.

The cost of the aircraft were as follows:
Before 1990 - 48 million. rubles
in 1991 - more than 70 mln. rubles
in 1992 - more than 300 mln. rubles


Despite more economic and military aid from China Pakistan still has to face that fact that their military spends $7 billion a year compared to $40 billion a year for India. While China spends over $120 billion a year China is currently confronting most of its neighbors and the United States over territorial claims in the South China Sea. There are also claims against Indian territory, but India is part of a much more powerful anti-China coalition. Moreover India has a GDP of $2 trillion compared to $245 billion for Pakistan. While the per capita income for Pakistan and India has long been about the same, since economic reforms in the 1990s (less socialism more free markets) India has pulled ahead.

Even more humiliating is the fact that many East Asian nations had the same per capita income as Pakistan and India in 1960 but are way ahead now. South Korea, for example, now has per capita income 17 times larger than Pakistan’s. South Korea concentrated on free markets, education and reducing corruption. That’s simple enough, but doing that has proved impossible so far for Pakistan (or India, which is at least trying). Worse for Pakistan’s rulers is the fact that more Pakistanis are aware of these discrepancies and asking “Why?”

Meanwhile, one of the unpublicized parts of the recent Chinese $46 billion aid and investment package is assurances that the thousands of Chinese who will accompany that money will be safe in general and especially from Islamic terrorists. Most of these Chinese will be involved with the $28 billion worth of infrastructure (roads, railroads and power stations) China is building. Thus Pakistan is organizing a special protection force of 12,000 men. This will consist of 12 infantry battalions (six from the army and six from the Rangers and Frontier Corps) and some special operations and intelligence personnel. China also wants more Pakistani action against Islamic terrorists (Turkic Uighurs) from China who have been based in Pakistan. 

The $46 billion is in addition to a 2013 deal where China pledged to spend $18 billion to build a road from Pakistan’s Indian Ocean port of Gwadar and into northwest China. This will require drilling long tunnels through the Himalayan Mountains on the border (in Pakistani controlled Kashmir.) This new deal expands that into a more extensive project called the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor. This will make it much easier and cheaper to move people, data (via fiber optic cables) and goods between China and Pakistan. China also gets a 40 year lease on much of the port facilities at Gwadar, which India fears will serve as a base for Chinese warships.

Pakistan is not getting along as well with its other neighbors. Pakistan has forced (since mid-2014) several thousand Islamic terrorists into eastern Afghanistan. In addition increasing anti-Afghan feelings in Pakistan has led to another effort to persecute and expel several million Afghans living (often illegally) in Pakistan. So far this year over 3,000 such refugees a month are returning from Pakistan. While many of these refugees could evade expulsion efforts over 40 percent of those who return cite growing anti-Afghan attitudes and harassment as the main reason for coming back to Afghanistan.

Then there is the Pakistani refusal to participate in the Arab effort to suppress pro-Iran Shia rebels in Yemen. This is important for the Gulf Arabs who are inclined to keep most of their troops out of Yemen. Iran is more and more threatening and while Pakistan refused to send troops they did promise to come in with troops if Saudi Arabia were invaded. The only likely invader is Iran, so Pakistan, also dependent on Saudi generosity, has not entirely backed away. Besides, Pakistan is Sunni and has nukes which is some protection against threats from a future nuclear armed Shia Iran.

India has joined Burma in pressuring China to do something about the continued shipments of Chinese weapons to tribal rebels in northern Burma and northeast India. China denies this is happening and points out that many Burmese rebels have long used Chinese weapons they bought from illegal dealers in China and then smuggled into Burma. China also points out that Burmese troops also use Chinese weapons. Burma and India counter that the rebels in both countries are using weapons China did not sell to the Burmese Army. Moreover these Chinese weapons (often older and cheaper designs) are showing up worldwide in the hands of rebels, terrorists and gangsters. The point here is that China is looking the other way as a huge illegal arms sales and smuggling operation goes about its business. China is in the midst of a major corruption crackdown so these complaints from Burma and India might be addressed this time around. Then again, maybe not.

The offensive against Islamic terrorists in the northwest, begun in mid-2014, continues. Actually, because of the large number of captured documents and prisoner interrogations there have been more raids and arrests outside the northwestern tribal territories. This has caused some problems because an army plan to go after Islamic terrorists in Karachi (the largest city in Pakistan, where about eight percent of all Pakistanis live) has encountered political resistance because of fear this is part of some secret plot to stage another coup.

The Russian invasion of eastern Ukraine is being felt as far away as India. That’s because the last five of 40 Indian AN-32 transports being upgraded in Ukraine have, well, sort of disappeared. Ukrainian engineers working in India to upgrade another 64 An-32s were called home and India can no longer get An-32 spare parts from Ukraine. The original contract called for 40 An-32s to be upgraded in Ukraine and another 64 in India. Now India faces the prospect of most of its aging An-32s becoming inoperable by the end of the decade. India is desperate to remedy this situation and is considering purchasing new transports. This is a very expensive alternative, but appears to be the only one.

April 23, 2015: In northwest Pakistan (Waziristan and Khyber) the military claims to have killed at least 47 Islamic terrorists over the last two days. This involved both ground operations and air strikes.

April 22, 2015: The U.S. revealed that a January 29 UAV missile strike on an Islamic terrorist compound in Pakistan (near the Afghan border) that killed six Islamic terrorists also killed two foreign hostages (an American held since 2011 and an Italian held since 2012) that American intelligence did not know were there. The two hostages had been kidnapped in Pakistan and held for ransom. The U.S. discourages payment of ransom because it encourages kidnappers to go after more Americans. The U.S. has carried out nearly 400 of these UAV missile attacks Pakistan since 2004.

April 20, 2015: Pakistan ordered another fifty JF-17 jet fighters, to be delivered by 2018. The first Pakistani JF-17 squadron became operational in 2010. Pakistan has already received sixty JF-17s as part of a project that began in 1992 and while it was a joint Pakistan-China development project China supplied most of the money and did most of the work. China, however, does not use the JF-17, only Pakistan. That’s largely because the JF-17 is assembled in Pakistan, although over 40 percent of the components come from China or Russia. The project has gone through several name changes (FC-1, Super 7). The 13 ton warplane is meant to be a low cost ($20-30 million) alternative to the American F-16. The JF-17 is considered the equal to earlier versions of the F-16, but only half as effective as more recent F-16 models. The JF-17 uses the same Russian engine, the RD-93 that is used in the MiG-29. The JF-17 design is based on a cancelled Russian project, the MiG-33. Most of the JF-17 electronics are Western. The JF-17 can carry 3.6 tons of weapons and use radar guided and heat seeking missiles. It has max speed of Mach 1.6, an operating range of 1,300 kilometers and a max altitude of 17,000 meters (55,000 feet). China has tried to export the aircraft to other countries but found that, for what it cost, it was not competitive.

April 17, 2015: Pakistan agreed to send warships to help maintain the naval blockade of Yemen. Pakistan refused to supply warplanes or ground troops and Arab anger at this is growing. So the warships are a peace offering and willingness to support the UN approved arms embargo of Yemen. 

April 16, 2015: India test fired another Agni III. This is a 48 ton ballistic missile that was first tested in 2006. It has a maximum range of 3,500 kilometers and a payload of 1.5 tons. Most of them are now aimed at China rather than Pakistan.

April 15, 2015: For the first time since 2012 Pakistan successfully launched a Hatf V ballistic missile. With a range of 1,300 kilometers, the missile can reach most of India. Pakistan sees missiles like this as essential to making Pakistani nuclear weapons a real deterrent to Indian invasion. The Indians are building an anti-missile system, with Israeli help and Pakistan is building more missiles and nuclear warheads in an attempt to create the capability to overwhelm these Indian defenses. Meanwhile, Indian politicians, press and public opinion all show no enthusiasm whatsoever for an invasion of Pakistan. There is, however, fear of Pakistan based Islamic terrorists making more attacks on India. Pakistan refuses to admit that this threat exists.

In eastern India (Bihar) police found a cache of Maoist weapons. Ammunition and equipment).

April 14, 2015: In eastern India (Chhattisgarh) Maoists began their usual April-June offensive by killing 13 police (and wounding 18) in three days of ambushes and raids. Maoist losses were, according to a Maoist captured later, more than twice as large. The police brought in reinforcements and during the rest of the month went on the offensive against the local Maoists.

April 13, 2015: India accused North Korea of continuing to sell Pakistan ballistic missile technology. It is already known that North Korea paid renegade Pakistani scientists at least $3.5 million for nuclear weapons technology in the late 1990s and that technical cooperation between the two countries continued. 

April 12, 2015: In northwest Pakistan (North Waziristan) American UAVs used missiles to kill four Islamic terrorists.

April 11, 2015: In southwest Pakistan (Baluchistan) tribal separatists were responsible for the night attack on a camp for workers building a bridge in a remote area. Twenty of the workers were killed and three survived with wounds. Police soon found and killed 13 separatists, including most of those responsible for the massacre.

April 10, 2015: Pakistan released (on bail) Zakiur Rehman Lakhvi from jail. This enraged the United States and India because Lakhvi was the planner for the 2008 Islamic terror massacre (166 dead) in Mumbai India. Shortly thereafter Pakistan was sent convincing evidence and India asked that Lakhvi be arrested and extradited for prosecution in India. Lakhvi was arrested in 2009 but Pakistan refused to turn him over or prosecute him themselves. Lakhvi was a hero to many Pakistanis because he is a widely known leader of Lashkar-e-Taiba. This Islamic terror group specializes in attacks in India and is very popular among middle and upper class high school and college students. Lashkar i Taiba was organized and long supported by the Pakistani military, mainly to organize and carry out terrorist attacks in India. This is widely known in Pakistan where few people will dare criticize the attacks inside India.

April 9, 2015: The Afghan Air Force received three Cheetal helicopters from India.

India Still Lacks Modern Battlefield Communication

The modernization of communications systems has lagged behind that of other weapons platforms in the Indian Army.

The Indian Army’s Tactical Communication System (TCS) is facing additional delays, Defense News reports. In February 2014, India selected two domestic development agencies (DAs) to compete for the TCS project, which is worth over $2 billion. However, “since the selection of the DAs in early 2014, no headway has been made in the development of a TCS prototype,” a defense ministry source told Defense News.
The TCS — an interfacing mobile tactical communication system — is intended to replace the obsolete radio communication network (the Plan AREN system) of the Indian Army for offensive operations. The Indian Army is also planning to introduce the new Battlefield Management System (BMS) integrating all surveillance resources, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and ground sensors providing soldiers on the ground real-time information on enemy troop movement and the disposition of friendly forces, along with information on terrain features.
The Defense Acquisition Council categorized TCS as a ‘make India’ system which restricted the selection process to domestic companies — the state-owned Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) and a special purpose company consisting of Larsen and Toubro, Tata Power SED, and HCL Infosys Limited.
However, the special purpose company announced that it would not proceed with the development of a prototype “until it receives the same tax incentives as are given to BEL, and insists that the intellectual property rights of the system be vested with the developer and not the Ministry of Defense,” according to Defense News.
Additionally, the article quotes an executive of the consortium who said:
The Indian government has already created facilities in BEL which would be utilized by them free of cost, whereas the private sector consortium would have to make investments that would be loaded on our offer. Ideally, the depreciation and interest of the MoD-funded facilities should at least be loaded on BEL to ensure a level playing field. This is still an issue to be resolved.
Another executive notes:
The major problem is legal as the special purpose vehicle formed by private consortia is not yet recognized by MoD. However, in their efforts to move forward, the qualitative requirements have been shared by the user [Indian Army] for DAs to respond with their costs for the prototype. That discussion is on currently. However, even if this is cleared, the legal clearance has to happen prior to disbursement of funding by MoD.
The two rival manufacturing groups are supposed to design the TCS and BMS systems over a period of five to seven years, according to IHS Jane’s Defense Weekly. However, the repeated delays — the project was originally scheduled to take off in 2000 –  have Indian defense officials worried:  ”Even Pakistan has developed its own TCS kind of project, and further delays of the Indian project will affect the combat worthiness of the Indian Army,” the defense ministry official quoted by Defense News said.
According to retired Indian  Lt. Gen. P.C. Katoch, the TCS is supposed to fulfill the following requirements:
TCS is a system that is meant for offensive operations, configured as a mobile system that can leapfrog in sync with rapidly advancing strike operations – covering offensive elements of both the ‘strike’ and ‘pivot’ corps. Important requirements for the radio system are: ESM and ECM resistance; integrated voice and data to the user; performance matching projected user demand (like error detection/correction, quality, delays); effective use of transmission medium; interoperability; flexibility in deployment; survivability; provision of user mobility (carry options, easy access etc).


Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack

Tupolev “Heaviest bomber” – Blackjack

The Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack is heaviest and most powerful combat bomber aircraft of all time. This strategic bomber was built to a programme which began in 1967 when DA (long- range aviation) Gen-Col Reshetnikov studied the Sukhoi T-4MS (so-called ‘200’) and Myasishchev M- 20. VVS chief Kutakhov assigned Sukhoi smaller aircraft, but the excel­lence of the M-20 led to its adoption, after modification as the M-18, with a horizontal tail instead of a canard. With so big a project CAHI’s top men, Byushgens and Svishchyev, led the aerodynamic backing. It was finally decided only Tupolev was big enough to tackle the job.
In January 1975 design went ahead at Tupolev as Aeroplane K, with the out-of-sequence Izdelye number 70. The Service designation, Tupolev Tu-160, is what might have been expected as the OKB number. Though Col Evgeni Vlasov called the Tu-160 ‘an expensive countermeasure to the B-l’, in fact it would probably have gone ahead even if the USAF bomber had never existed.
Authorisation to create this bomber specified an optimised aircraft regard­less of cost, and the Kremlin demand continued after cancellation of B-l on 30 June 1977. Indeed it was exactly at this time that the OKB received an order for prototypes. Dr Alexei Tupolev, then OKB titular head, appointed as team leader Valentin Bliznyuk. Prototype assembly was to be in the Tupolev facility at LII Zhukovskii, with any subsequent series production to be at Kazan.
According to Vlasov, looked at from the outside, the Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack and B-1B are similar. This is explained by the fact both aircraft have similar objec­tives: a long radius of action despite a heavy load of equipment and stores, the capability of deceiving enemy defence systems at low or high alti­tudes, and of having minimum radar, IR, optical and acoustic signatures. However, they bear resemblance from the outside only; the differences are fundamental’.
Perhaps the most basic single differ­ence is that the Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack has 80% more installed engine power. Last of the engines to bear the initials of KB director Nikolai Kuznetsov, the NK-32 is one of the most powerful military engines in history, with a take-off rating of 14,000kg (30,843lb) and maximum augmented thrust of 23,100kg (50,926lb). A second differ­ence is that, though significantly larger than the USAF bomber, the Tu-160 has smaller radar cross-sections and lower aerodynamic drag.
Col-Gen Boris Korolkov com­mented that there is a marked differ­ence between the radar cross-sections, even ignoring the B-1B’s external carriage of missiles and the claimed much better performance of the Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack’s EW (electronic-warfare) systems, though in fairness to the US aircraft it has got better. Finally, partly thanks to idealised variable- geometry inlets, the Tu-160 is faster at sea level and almost twice as fast at alti­tude.
The four engines are installed in paired nacelles under the enormous fixed inner wing. This has a lead­ing edge which in plan view curves continuously from a sweep angle of 90 deg where it blends imperceptibly into the fuselage near the cockpit. Thanks to this acute sweep, the leading-edge radius is large, affording both space and good antenna sizes for powerful internal ECM (electronic counter- measures). Two giant beams link the pivots for the outer wings, 19.2m (63ft) apart, with the sweep angle selected by control-stick buttons offering 20 deg, 35 deg or 65 deg.
Each outer wing is straight-tapered from root to tip, with full-span four- section hydraulically driven slotted leading-edge flaps (essentially slats) and full-span four-section double- slotted trailing-edge flaps. Outboard of the trailing-edge flaps, but stopping 3.5m (11ft 6in) short of the wingtip, are powered ailerons. These are all- speed primary roll-control surfaces, but backed by spoilers and tailerons. With flaps extended, they droop 20 deg. After prolonged research the decision was taken to retain the optimum engine installation, leaving nowhere for the wing trailing edge to penetrate at 65 deg sweep. The prob­lem was solved by making the inboard trailing edge hinge progressively upwards to form a large vertical fence at maximum sweep.
The tail looks deceptively conven­tional. The fixed fin is actually very sharply swept, with large chord but little height. On it are mounted the swept and sharply tapered slab tailplanes and the one-piece unswept but sharply tapered rudder (there is no fin above the tailplanes). The tail- planes are more strictly tailerons, because they can operate together for pitch authority or in opposition for control in roll. Their span is 13.25m (43ft 5in) and area 55.6sq m (598.5sq ft); leading-edge sweep is 44 deg and they are without dihedral or anhedral. All flight-control surfaces are driven by electro-hydraulic power units with dual FBW (fly by wire) and standby mechanical signalling.
The fuselage cross-section is the minimum necessary for crew, fuel and payload, and is significantly less than that of the B-1B or Tupolev Tu-22M. Drag and radar cross-section are further reduced by the acute angle of the con­ical nose, and by the use of special computer routines to achieve optimum shape and control machine tools in production. Of over forty-five an­tennas, only three project as blades or spikes. Apart from the previously mentioned hinged ‘flap fence’, no fences or vortex generators were needed anywhere.
Structurally, Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack broke new ground with Tupolev in its very extensive use of honeycomb sandwich skin and precision-controlled RAM (radar-absorbent material) covering. Each engine-pair is installed in a rec­tangular-section nacelle hung under the inboard wing, with nacelle width increasing progressively from front to rear and the rear upper portions pro­jecting above the wing as separate jet- pipe fairings. Despite experience of horizontal-wedge inlets with the Tupolev Tu-144 and Tupolev Tu-22M-3, for minimum radar cross-section the inlets were designed similar to those of the B-1A (not the fixed-geometry B-1B) with a vertical splitter leading back to an inner wall variable in profile and throat area. ANTK Tupolev believe this inlet achieves higher pressure recovery and lower drag from 0 to Mach 1.9 than any other inlet flying. The outer wall is also vertical, incorporating five inward suction-relief doors of progressively reduced height, matching the profile of the duct which at the throat is tall and narrow. For ‘stealth’ reasons, con­sideration is being given to modifying these doors with zigzag edges. As in Tupolev’s previous supersonic bom­bers, the complete variable nozzle of each engine projects behind the nacelle, the engine being withdrawn on rails to the rear.
To minimize radar cross-section of Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack, the nose landing gear is installed behind, not under, the pressurised crew compartment. It carries landing and taxi lights, and spray/slush deflec­tors are mounted behind the twin wheels. Tyre size is 1,080mm by 400mm, the truck being hydraulically steerable through ±55 deg and retracted pneumo-hydraulically to the rear into a bay with left/right doors which remain open when the gear is extended. Each main landing gear has a six-wheel bogie, the tyre size being 1,260mm by 425mm. Unlike the Tupolev Tu-22M, all three pairs of wheels are in line, because this aircraft operates from uncontaminated paved runways. The bogie supports a massive oleo leg made by Hydromash, installed inboard of the engine nacelle, which restricts the track to 5.4m (17ft 8in). Wheel- base is 17.875m (58ft 7in). The main drag strut incorporates the retraction jack which pushes the gear to the rear. The leg pivots back and the lower por­tions also move inwards, while the bogie somersaults to lie inverted in a box which projects upwards to cause ‘canoe’ blisters between the engines and the fuselage. These blisters taper at the rear into shallow pipe/cable- loom fairings carried externally on each side of the rear-fuselage integral tanks to the closure bulkhead at the aft end.
A very large braking parachute of Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack can be streamed from the fairing between the horizontal and vertical tails. Inter­nal fuel capacity is 50 per cent greater than that of the B-1B. Tankage is integral throughout, the main refuelling doors being in the front face of the inboard leading edge. Each aircraft was built with provision for a retractable inflight-refuelling probe above the nose, but in confor­mity with START treaties this capa­bility remains unused. There are four autonomous hydraulic systems, each energised by an engine-driven pump to the high pressure of 280kg/sq cm (3,983lb/sq in).
Dimensions and data of Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack:
  • Wingspan (20 deg) 55.7m (182ft 9in), (35 dcg) 50.7m (166ft 4in), (65 deg) 35,6m (116ft 9in)
  • Length 54.1m (177ft 6in)
  • Wing area 340sq m (3,660sq ft)
  • Empty weight 18,000kg (259,000lb)
  • Maxi­mum fuel 171,000kg (376,984lb)
  • Loaded weight 275,000kg (606,260lb)
  • Maximum landing weight 165,000kg (363,762lb)
  • 2 internal bays for 40,000 kg (88,185 lb)
  • 2 internal rotary launchers each holding 6 × Raduga Kh-55 cruise missiles )
  • 12× Raduga Kh-15 short-range nuclear missiles