Wednesday, 30 January 2013

India test fires cannon launched laser-guided missile

The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) on Monday conducted the tests of an advanced version of Cannon-launched Laser Guided Missile (CLGM) from the Integrated Test Range (ITR) off the Odisha coast.

Altogether three rounds of the missile were test-fired from a specially built launcher at the launching complex-II of Chandipur based test range. A defence official said the mission was successful as the missile perfectly destroyed the targets as expected.

“The tests were conducted in between 3.30 pm to 4.30 pm during low tide period. There will be one more round of test on Tuesday. All the data have been collected and would be evaluated after the completion of the mission,” he said.

CLGM is a new generation anti-tank missile developed by the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) at Bangalore. It can destroy any target in 3 km to 5 km range. It is an all terrain missile to be used by the army, navy and air force.

This missile has bigger warhead and little slower than original 105-mm Laser Homing Attack or Laser Homing Anti-Tank (LAHAT) from Israel. It would equip the Arjun MK-2 and MK-1 tanks.

“The CLGM uses a laser of a specific frequency bandwidth to locate the target. The laser creates a heat signature on the target. The missile recognises it and homes in on it even if the target is moving,” said a defence scientist.

The missile can also target other armoured targets and helicopters at extended ranges. The ADE has developed the missile with global positioning system technology.

Tuesday, 29 January 2013

Address By President Pranab Mukherjee On 64th Republic Day Eve

"My Fellow Citizens:
On the eve of our 64th Republic Day, I extend warm greetings to all of you in India and abroad. I convey my special greetings to members of our armed forces, paramilitary forces and internal security forces.

2.    India has changed more in last six decades than in six previous centuries. This is neither accidental nor providential; history shifts its pace when touched by vision. The great dream of raising a new India from the ashes of colonialism reached a historic denouement in 1947; more important, independence became a turning point for an equally dramatic narrative, nation-building. The foundations were laid through our Constitution, adopted on 26 January 1950, which we celebrate each year as Republic Day. Its driving principle was a compact between state and citizen, a powerful public-private partnership nourished by justice, liberty and equality.
India did not win freedom from the British in order to deny freedom to Indians. The Constitution represented a second liberation, this time from the stranglehold of traditional inequity in gender, caste, community, along with other fetters that had chained us for too long.

3.    This inspired a Cultural Evolution which put Indian society on the track to modernity: society changed in a gradual evolution, for violent revolution is not the Indian way. Change across the knotted weaves of the social fabric remains a work in progress, impelled by periodic reform in law and the momentum of popular will.

4.    In the last six decades there is much that we can be proud of. Our economic growth rate has more than tripled. The literacy rate has increased by over four times. After having attained self sufficiency, now we are net exporters of food-grain. Significant reduction in the incidence of poverty has been achieved. Among our other major achievements is the drive towards gender equality.

5.    No one suggested this would be easy. The difficulties that accompanied the first quantum leap, the Hindu code bill, enacted in 1955 tell their own story. It needed the unflinching commitment of leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and Babasaheb Ambedkar to push through this remarkable legislation. Jawaharlal Nehru would later describe this as perhaps the most important achievement of his life. The time has now come to ensure gender equality for every Indian woman. We can neither evade nor abandon this national commitment, for the price of neglect will be high. Vested interests do not surrender easily. The civil society and the government must work together to fulfill this national goal.

Fellow Citizens:
6.    I speak to you when a grave tragedy has shattered complacency. The brutal rape and murder of a young woman, a woman who was symbol of all that new India strives to be, has left our hearts empty and our minds in turmoil. We lost more than a valuable life; we lost a dream. If today young Indians feel outraged, can we blame our youth?

7.    There is a law of the land. But there is also a higher law. The sanctity of a woman is a directive principle of that larger edifice called Indian civilization. The Vedas say that there is more than one kind of mother: birth mother, a guru's wife, a king's wife, a priest's wife, she who nurses us, and our motherland. Mother is our protection from evil and oppression, our symbol of life and prosperity. When we brutalise a woman, we wound the soul of our civilization.

8.    It is time for the nation to reset its moral compass. Nothing should be allowed to spur cynicism, as cynicism is blind to morality. We must look deep into our conscience and find out where we have faltered. The solutions to problems have to be found through discussion and conciliation of views. People must believe that governance is an instrument for good and for that, we must ensure good governance.

Fellow Citizens:
9.    We are on the cusp of another generational change; the youth of India spread across villages and towns, are in the vanguard of change. The future belongs to them. They are today troubled by a range of existential doubts. Does the system offer due reward for merit? Have the powerful lost their Dharma in pursuit of greed? Has corruption overtaken morality in public life? Does our legislature reflect emerging India or does it need radical reforms? These doubts have to be set at rest. Elected representatives must win back the confidence of the people. The anxiety and restlessness of youth has to be channelized towards change with speed, dignity and order.

10.    The young cannot dream on an empty stomach. They must have jobs capable of serving their own as well as the nation's ambitions. It is true that we have come a long way from 1947, when our first Budget had a revenue of just over Rs.171 crore. The resource base of the Union government today is an ocean compared to that drop. But we must ensure that the fruits of economic growth do not become the monopoly of the privileged at the peak of a pyramid. The primary purpose of wealth creation must be to drive out the evil of hunger, deprivation and marginal subsistence from the base of our expanding population.

Fellow Citizens:

11.    Last year has been a testing time for us all. As we move ahead on the path of economic reforms, we must remain alive to the persisting problems of market-dependent economies. Many rich nations are now trapped by a culture of entitlement without social obligations; we must avoid this trap. The results of our policies should be seen in our villages, farms and factories, schools and hospitals.
Figures mean nothing to those who do not benefit from them. We must act immediately, otherwise the current pockets of conflict, often described as "Naxalite" violence, could acquire far more dangerous dimensions.

Fellow Citizens:

12.    In the recent past, we have seen serious atrocities on the Line of Control on our troops. Neighbours may have disagreements; tension can be a subtext of frontiers. But sponsorship of terrorism through non-state actors is a matter of deep concern to the entire nation. We believe in peace on the border and are always ready to offer a hand in the hope of friendship. But this hand should not be taken for granted.
Fellow Citizens:

13.    India's most impregnable asset is self-belief. Each challenge becomes an opportunity to strengthen our resolve to achieve unprecedented economic growth and social stability. Such resolve must be nourished by an avalanche of investment, particularly in better and greater education. Education is the ladder that can help those at the bottom to rise to the pinnacles of professional and social status. Education is the mantra that can transform our economic fortunes and eliminate the gaps that have made our society unequal. So far education has not reached, to the extent desired, to those most in need of this ladder. India can double its growth rate by turning today's disadvantaged into multiple engines of economic development.

14.    On our 64th Republic Day, there may be some reason for concern, but none for despair. If India has changed more in six decades than six previous centuries, then I promise you that it will change more in the next ten years than in the previous sixty. India’s enduring vitality is at work.

15.  Even the British sensed that they were leaving a land which was very different from the one they had occupied. At the base of the Jaipur Column in Rashtrapati Bhavan there is an inscription:
    “In thought faith…
    In word wisdom…
    In deed courage…
    In life service…
    So may India be great”   
The spirit of India is written in stone.

President of India Approves 359 Republic Day Gallantry & Other Defence Decorations On 64th Republic Day

The President has approved awards of 359 Gallantry and other Defence decorations to Armed Forces personnel and others on the eve of the 64TH    Republic Day Celebrations.  This includes 01 Kirti Chakra, 11 Shaurya Chakra, 56 Sena Medal (Gallantry), 01 Bar to Nao Sena Medal (Gallantry), 03 Nao Sena Medal (Gallantry), 03 Vayu Sena Medal (Gallantry), 28 Param Vishisht Seva Medal, 03 Uttam Yudh Seva Medal, 06 Bar to Ati Vishisht  Seva Medal, 44 Ati Vishisht Seva Medal,  12 Yudh Seva Medal, 02 Bar to Sena Medal (Devotion to Duty), 37 Sena Medal (Devotion to Duty), 01 Bar to Nao Sena Medal (Devotion to Duty), 07 Nao Sena Medal (Devotion to Duty), 14 Vayu Sena Medal (Devotion to Duty), 04 Bar to Vishisht Seva Medal and 116 Vishisht Seva Medal.
In addition a total of ten Mention-In-Despatches have also been announced for participating in Operation Rakshak and Operation Rhino.

The full list of the recipients of gallantry and other Defence decorations to Armed Forces personnel and others is as follows:



1.IC-67270F MAJOR Anup Joseph Manjali BIHAR ReGIMENT / 24TH BATTAlION THE Rashtriya Rifles






5. IC-74882F Lieutenant Manish Singh 9th Battalion THE Parachute Regiment (Special Forces)

Indian Navy

On 11 Sep 2012, Lt Cdr Inderjeet Singh as the team leader of the HQWNC Emergency Fire Response Team boarded MV Amsterdam Bridge to combat a major fire onboard. A powerful explosion below the deck resulted in a spontaneous major fire with poisonous gases within compartment. Since, the container was containing highly inflammable liquid, which posed a great threat to maritime catastrophe. Despite being unaware of the Merchant ship layout in addition to a smoke filled compartment he courageously conducted his team below deck up to 200 feet in complete darkness. Despite hazardous condition of possible explosion he located the seat of fire and with the available limited fire fighting equipments he led his team to extinguish the fire.

The daring act performed by the officer was beyond the call of duty and not one that was performed in the normal course of work. The gallantry and leadership displayed by the officer at great personal risk and in the face of overwhelming odds are in keeping with the highest traditions of the Indian Navy. Therefore, Lieutenant Commander Inderjeet Singh (05871-T) is awarded "Shaurya Chakra" for displaying exceptional courage and initiative in the face of great danger.


On 31 May 2012, 312(Vizag) flight was tasked to embark INS Satpura for casualty evacuation from INS Sindhuvir which was located approx 700 nm from Vishakhapatanam. The ship could reach the position by morning 01 Jun 12 and the weather was overwhelmed with strong south westerly wind and sea was choppy with swell of 1-1.5 mts. causing the ship/submarine to roll and pitch heavily and further it was impossible to evacuate the casualty through standard VERTREP.
Seeing the degrading condition of the casualty it was decided to evacuate from the conning tower of the submarine. Despite marginal weather condition and heavy seas Lt Cdr Dhirender Bisht, the first pilot took a brave and considered decision to go ahead with the CASEVAC. He exhibited excellent flying skills in carrying out a safe take off from the heaving condition, necessitated evacuation of casualty from conning tower. The prevailing sea condition made the task exceedingly difficult. With little or no visual cues the crew not only evacuated the casualty but also safe recovery on deck thereafter the casualty was successfully operated upon onboard. Have there been any delay it would have resulted in a fatality. 
The officer displayed dauntless courage, exceptional flying skills/ability and commitment to purpose in executing a daring CASEVAC in adverse conditions resulting in rendering critical medical assistance well in time. This is in keeping with the highest traditions of the Indian Navy. Therefore, Lt Cdr Dhirender Bisht has been awarded "Nao Sena Medal (Gallantry)" for displaying exceptional courage and initiative in the face of danger.



On 20 Aug 2012, while escorting a group of merchant ships through the internationally recommended transit corridor, an Indian registered Merchant Vessel Vishwa Viksa with was in the escort group requested INS Betwa for immediate medical assistance as one of its crew was experiencing excruciating pain in the abdomen and required immediate medical assistance.
The medical aid could only be provided to the patient only if a helicopter could land on the deck of the merchant vessel along with the ship’s medical officer. Since, it was a very adverse weather with lots of rolling and pitching. Further, the merchant vessel’s unfamiliar deck added more difficulty. In spite of all odd, Lt Harisanker being the first pilot took the challenge to undertake the mission, within 20 min he promptly got airborne. The landing spot was a cargo hatch top, in between two high cranes, inclement weather further endangered the approach. Sea conditions, deck movements and strong unfavourable wind made the task very extremely challenging. Despite all the Lt Hrisanker remained undeterred and displayed exceptional professional skill and great fortitude to safely land the aircraft on a hatch between two cranes of the merchant ship, not once but twice. First to transfer the ship’s medical officer and later to evacuate the patient after he was examined by the medical officer. The patient was diagnosed with acute appendicitis by the ship’s medical office which mandated an early surgical procedure in a hospital ashore at Salalah next day when INS Betwa reached.
The prompt action by the officer facilitated evacuation of the patient to INS Betwa followed by disembarkation at Salalah  for immediate operation of acute appendicitis which therby saved the life of the Indian national at sea.

 The action of Lt Harisanker in handling this urgent and critical medical evacuation as First pilot, Captain of the aircraft and Detachment commander were one of gallantry and valour. In recognition of his act of exceptional courage, leadership, shift action with professional skill and competence in undertaking a successful rescue in face of adverse conditions Lt Harisanker (06133-N) has been awarded "Nao Sena Medal (Gallantry)" for displaying exceptional courage and initiative in the face of danger.



 On 01 Jun 2012, at about 1745 hrs on ship’s return passage post successful CASEVAC of patient ex Indian Naval submarine, a fire was reported in the ship’s forward DA compartment. Mukesh Kumar CHME was the first sailor who rushed to the compartment to undertake first aid fire fighting measure. Despite the presence of considerable smoke and heat, the sailor battled the fire with portable fire fighting equipments.

Despite withstanding intense heat, heavy smoke and no protective gear, he came out and donned a BAASCA set and re-entered the compartment to fight the fire. By this time the compartment was fully engulfed with smoke and caused zero visibility. Since, the sailor belongs to the engine department he had a fair idea of the seat of fire and his ability to move in the compartment without sight encouraged him to re-enter the compartment with fresh BA set and climbed on top of the G1 DA enclosure and fight the fire using firemain. Finally he decided to operate the CO2 fire fighting system and brought the fire under control. Mukesh Kumar CHME displayed extremely rare personal and physical courage by volunteering to enter the compartment repeatedly without care for personal safety.
The courage displayed by the sailor will always serve as an inspiration to the present and future crews. For his gallant act under face of personal danger, with only the safety of the ship as his guiding factor along with exceptional courage, action with professional skill and competence Mukesh Kumar (177091-F) has been awarded "Nao Sena Medal (Gallantry)" for displaying exceptional courage and initiative in the face of danger.


On 14 Aug 2012, at about 1700 hrs HQWNC had directed INS Virrat to provide medical assistance to a patient on board German Naval Ship FRG Bremen. The officer being the First Pilot took off Seaking helicopter (SK 532) and landed on board German Naval Ship at about 1900 hrs with marginal condition of flying and having no experience of landing on that deck. The patient was evacuated and the chopper took off from the German ship, after 5 minute of return flying the main Transmission Oil pressure of the main Gear dropped to zero and emergency lubrication system becomes operative.

The pilot maintained his composure, reassured his crew, displayed a high level of professionalism and skill in handling the multiple emergencies of erratic stabilization and transmission oil pressure failure, in pitch dark night conditions, with marginal weather conditions he executed a safe landing on board INS Virrat.

In recognition of his act of exceptional courage, leadership, shift action with professional skill and competence in undertaking a successful rescue in face of adverse conditions Cdr Srivatsa Seshdri, NM (03717-Y) has been awarded "Bar to Nao Sena Medal (Gallantry)" in keeping with the highest traditions of the armed forces.

Submarine missile test a step towards a 4000-kilometer missile

Even in the visually spectacular field of missile testing, the sight of a submarine-launched missile breaking through the surface is a breathtaking one. On Sunday, Defence R&D Organisation (DRDO) scientists cheered excitedly as their indigenous, submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) leapt out of the water, its rocket motor fired soon after clearing the surface, and it soared off in a while plume to accurately strike a target 700 kilometres away.

To nobody’s surprise, the underwater launch went exactly according to plan. This missile, called in turn the K-15, the Shaurya, and now the B-05, had already been launched 10 times from under water and thrice from land. This exacting test schedule is designed for assurance, since this is a missile that cannot afford to fail. Until a better one is developed, this will be the backbone of India’s underwater nuclear deterrence.

That means that it will arm the INS Arihant, India’s first and only nuclear-armed ballistic missile submarine, or SSBN. Tipped with nuclear warheads, the K-15 will be launched from the Arihant only after a nuclear attack on India. New Delhi’s “no-first-use” nuclear policy prohibits the pre-emptive use of nuclear weapons.

That means that India’s land-based and air-based nuclear weaponry, such as the Agni-series of missiles, might already have been destroyed by a pre-emptive enemy nuclear attack. The Arihant, and the B-05 missiles that it carries, are far more difficult to tackle, since they lurk underwater in complete secrecy. The underwater leg of the nuclear triad (land-launched, air-launched and submarine-launched weapons) has always been regarded as the most survivable. It is the ultimate currency of a nuclear exchange.

Going by what the DRDO said about its own test, the B-05 is well up to the task. “The Missile, developed by DRDO, was launched from a pontoon and was tested for the full range. It met all the mission objectives.  The parameters of the vehicle were monitored by radar all through the trajectory and terminal events took place exactly as envisaged,” said an MoD release on Sunday.
The B-05 (or K-15, or Shaurya) is no ordinary ballistic missile. Top DRDO scientists briefed Business Standard that it is not a ballistic missile at all. It could better be characterised as a hypersonic cruise missile, since it remains within the earth’s atmosphere.

A ballistic missile suffers from inherent disadvantages, since it is a relatively crude device, akin to a stone that is lobbed upwards, propelled by a rocket. After the rocket burns out, gravity comes into play, pulling the missile warhead down towards the target. Buffeted by wind and re-entry forces, accuracy is a problem; and, since the ballistic missile’s path is entirely predictable, shooting it down is relatively easy.

The Shaurya has overcome most of these issues. Its solid-fuel, two-stage rocket accelerates the missile to six times the speed of sound before it reaches an altitude of 40 kilometers (125,000 feet), after which it levels out and cruises towards the target, powered by its onboard fuel. In contrast to conventional ballistic missiles that cannot correct their course midway, the Shaurya is an intelligent missile. Onboard navigation computers kick in near the target, guiding the missile to the target and eliminating errors that inevitably creep in during its turbulent journey.

“I would say the Shaurya is a hybrid propulsion missile”, says Dr VK Saraswat, the DRDO chief, talking to Business Standard in 2010. “Like a ballistic missile, it is powered by solid fuel. And, like a cruise missile, it can guide itself right up to the target.”

Making the B-05 even more survivable is its ability to manoeuvre, following a twisting path to the target that makes it very difficult to shoot it down. In contrast, a ballistic missile is predictable; its trajectory gives away its target and its path to it.

The problem with the B-05 (or K-15, or Shaurya) remains its relatively short range of just 750 kilometres. While it could reach major cities in most countries if it were launched from just off the coast, that would necessitate a perilous submarine journey to the vicinity of the coastline. Therefore, the DRDO is also developing a longer-range missile, dubbed the K-4, which will have a range of almost 4000 kilometers. An Indian SSBN that is armed with the K-4 missile would be able to strike most likely targets from a safe patrol location in the Bay of Bengal.

Some photos from the parade in New Delhi and new military systems


This year’s Republic Day parade in New Delhi, a traditional showcase for India’s defence arsenal, featured an unusually large number of brand new military systems. At the very start four brand new Mi-17V5 helicopters flew past carrying the national flag, and these were followed by several other systems that were making their debut before the public.

This is noteworthy, given the flak that the defence ministry (MoD) has taken for endemic delays in procuring equipment for modernising the ageing military. But now, after years of restructuring its procurement institutions and regulations, the MoD appears to be delivering much-needed weaponry to the three services.

The most eye-popping new system on display today was the Agni-5 ballistic missile, which can carry a thermo-nuclear warhead to a target 5000 kilometres away. The giant 17.5-metre long, 50-tonne, three-stage missile rolled down Rajpath (New Delhi’s presidential avenue) on a special launcher vehicle built by a private Indian company. The Agni-5, built by the Defence R&D Organisation (DRDO) was successfully tested last April. After 2-3 more successful tests it will join the Strategic Forces Command.

The DRDO’s success in missile development was reflected in the awards won by three top DRDO scientists. Dr VK Saraswat, the DRDO chief and Scientific Advisor to the Raksha Mantri, a key member of India’s missile development programmes for decades, was awarded the Padma Bhushan. So too was Dr Sivathanu Pillai, who oversees the Brahmos cruise missile programme, while Dr Avinash Chander, the DRDO’s chief controller of missile development, was awarded the Padma Shri.

The Indian Air Force (IAF) was relieved to display, even though it was a scaled-down model, the Pilatus PC-7 Mark II basic trainer aircraft that was recently procured from Swiss manufacturer, Pilatus, for Rs 1,800 crore. With the IAF’s basic trainer fleet of HPT-32 Deepak aircraft grounded after the deaths of 19 pilots in 17 crashes, this basic trainer aircraft will fill a crucial gap.

Also showcased on the IAF tableau was the C-17 Globemaster III, the purchase of which signaled that New Delhi was willing to pay big money for world-class systems. The IAF is paying Rs 22,800 crore for ten C-17s, making it the largest operator of this transport aircraft outside the US. Boeing will deliver the first five C-17s this year, with the next five coming in 2014. India is expected to place a follow-on order for this aircraft, which it needs for quickly reinforcing threatened sectors along the remote, Himalayan, northern border. The C-17 can deliver 74 tonnes of stores to a one-kilometre-long unpaved runway 4,500 kilometres away.

Another expensive, new aircraft featured on the IAF tableau was the AW-101 AgustaWestland helicopter. The MoD has bought twelve of these helicopters for Rs 3,550 crore for VVIP transportation. Delivery has begun, even as the Italian company is investigated in its home country after allegations of bribes paid to facilitate this and other contracts.

Another new IAF display was the Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEW&C) aircraft, which the DRDO is developing. These indigenous airborne radars, which are mounted on Embraer executive jets, will greatly enhance the IAF’s ability to monitor Indian airspace and control the aerial battle. The AEW&C will operate at one-eighth the cost of the Phalcon Airborne Warning & Control System (AWACS) that the IAF currently uses.

Besides the IAF, the Indian Navy showcased the warships it is inducting. Most prominent amongst these was the nuclear-propelled attack submarine, INS Chakra, which was displayed on the navy’s tableau. The 12,000-tonne Chakra, which India has leased from Russia for ten years for about Rs 4,800 crore, joined the eastern naval fleet in April. With virtually unlimited operating endurance, the Chakra greatly strengthens the navy’s ability to choke off enemy shipping at Indian Ocean choke points like the Strait of Malacca.

Also displayed on the naval tableau, but not yet delivered, was the aircraft carrier, INS Vikramaditya, formerly the Admiral Gorshkov in the Russian Navy. This jinxed vessel was bought in 2004 for Rs 5,000 crore and was to be delivered in 2008. By last year, the price was up to Rs 12,500 crore. Close to delivery, the vessel’s engine boilers failed during its final sea trials last September, leading to a delay of about a year. Now the MoD says the Vikramaditya “will join the naval fleet by the end of this year.”

 Meanwhile, Russia has begun delivering to the navy the 19 MiG-29K/KUB fighters that will fly from the Vikramaditya. A follow-on order for 26 more Mig-29K/KUB has been placed on Russia.

Next year’s Republic Day parade could feature two more crucial aircraft. Firstly, the navy’s P8I Multi-Role Maritime Aircraft (MMA) that will enhance “maritime domain awareness” over India’s 2.54 million square kilometres of Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The second could be the Rafale medium multi-role combat aircraft, the purchase of which is currently being negotiated with Dassault of France. It is expected that negotiations will be concluded by mid-2013. While the first Rafale, which Dassault would deliver in flyaway condition, can only be expected by 2015, the IAF tableau would certainly feature the Rafale if the contract is signed this year.

The army’s presence, as always, mainly took the form of marching infantry contingents, a colourful and impressive sight. Given the army’s relatively sluggish procurement machinery, it had little to display by way of new equipment. There are plans for upgrading the soldier’s personal equipment, weaponry and clothing, but for now the Indian Army remains predominantly a light infantry force that consists mainly of lightly equipped foot soldiers that can operate across thousands of miles of high-altitude mountain border. 

Tuesday, 22 January 2013

INS Saryu, the first Naval Offshore Patrol Vessel (NOPV), joins the Indian Navy

INS Saryu, the lead vessel of the indigenous Naval Offshore Patrol Vessel (NOPV) project, was inducted into the navy today. It was designed and built by Goa Shipyard Limited.

INS Saryu will help to meet the Indian Navy's growing requirements for ocean surveillance and patrolling. Its primary role will include EEZ surveillance, anti-piracy patrols, fleet support operations, maritime security to offshore assets and escort operations for high value assets.

Capable of carrying a helicopter (ALH) onboard, the ship’s weapon and sensor outfit includes a 76.2 mm super rapid gun mount with an electro-optic fire control system, two 30mm guns as close in weapon systems, new-generation navigational and early warning radars, chaff launchers for self protection and an integrated ESM system. The vessel is also equipped with two rigid inflatable fast motor boats.

INS Saryu is propelled by two SEMT diesel engines which are the largest engines of its type to be inducted in the Indian Navy, permitting speeds in excess of 25 knots. The ship's propulsion and power management  is controlled through a Remote Control System which incorporates an Automatic Power Management System. An integrated LAN system onboard along with a CCTV management system ensures optimal utilization of onboard equipment and better crew efficiency.

INS Saryu has a complement of 8 officers and 105 sailors.

The Republic Day Parade-2013 To Showcase Agni-V, As Its Star Attraction !!

Agni 5, India’s state of the art long range ballistic missile termed as “the game changer”, will be star attraction in DRDO (Defence R&D Organisation) contingent in the Republic Day Parade this year.  Displaying state of the art military systems developed by it, the DRDO contingent is commanded by Lt. Col Jagvir Singh Jaglan and consists of Agni 5, Armoured Amphibious Dozer (AAD) and two tableaus, one depicting the Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEW&C) System and the other one depicting advanced Sonars developed for the Indian Navy. Lt. Col Jaglan, presently posted to a premier DRDO laboratory, VRDE (Vehicle Research and Development laboratory), Ahmednagar, was commissioned from the Officers Training Academy on 11 Mar 1995 and belongs to the Corps of Electronics and Mechanical Engineers (EME).

The Agni 5 missile is an advanced long range surface to surface ballistic missile capable of being launched within minutes, from a self-contained road mobile launcher, to deliver payloads to distances in excess of 5000 km.  In terms of technologies, it is country’s most advanced strategic missile and incorporates many new indigenously developed technologies.  Some of these technologies are composite rocket motors, novel conical composite rocket motor, highly accurate Ring Laser Gyro based Inertial Navigation System (RINS) further supported by the most modern Micro Inertial Navigation System (MINS),
a high speed on-board computer combined with fault tolerant software, fully digital control system and advanced compact avionics.  The new technologies incorporated in the missile system have ensured a very high level of accuracy, high reliability and light weight. The successful flight test of Agni 5 on 19th April, 2012,” has brought India at par with the elite group of advanced countries possessing such deterrence capability.

Armoured Amphibious Dozer (AAD) is an indigenously developed versatile Combat Engineer support equipment with excellent earth moving and amphibious capabilities in varied terrain. Based on BMP-II vehicle, It is useful for bund reduction on near and far banks and it can swim across water obstacles. It is designed to provide Combat Engineer support in earth moving and allied tasks in support of the operations of mechanized formations in plains, deserts and riverine terrain.

 Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEW&C) System, India’s Indigenous system with all weather, all terrain, all environment capable surveillance system is the simplest, most cost effective airborne early warning system in its class. This system is indigenously designed and developed keeping current and future operational requirements of IAF in the view. The system is mounted on an Embraer Aircraft of Brazil which has been extensively modified for installation of DRDO developed Mission System, such as active array Radar system, identification of friend or foe system and several other sensors. A mission computer on board focuses the information from all the sensors and presents it to several operators simultaneously. Multiple line of sight and satellite communications link on board are used to communicate the data to ground command and control antennas. Aircraft has an
Air-to-Air Refueling Probe to increase the endurance. AEW&C System will be a major command and control node in the network centric warfare. This is capable of playing a strategic as well as tactical role in the battlefield environment. Apart from surveillance, which is its primary role, AEW&C systems can act as a communication beacon, guide our fighter aircraft for interception. This can play a measure role in both defensive as well as offensive operations.

Monday, 14 January 2013

MoD's year-end review report

Augmentation of Nation’s defence preparedness by adding new milestones in defence R&D, capacity building in existing and new strategic areas through upgradation and modernization, further strengthening of coastal security initiatives in different areas particularly in air defence and blue water capabilities and a systematic force projection of our armed forces in India’s neighbourhood and far off Asian region by engaging them through exercises and defence diplomacy were the main highlights of the year.
The year also saw massive welfare measures being undertaken for service personnel and ex-servicemen, scaling of new heights by armed forces personnel in fields like sports and adventure activities.  The achievements of defence scientists in developing different soldier support systems like Suicide Risk Assessment Test, BMP Urban Survival Kit, Armour for Mi 17-IV for helicopters and Heavy Weight Anti-Submarine Electric Torpedo – ‘Varunastra’ also marked the eventful year.

New Weapons Systems to Strengthen Defence Preparedness

AGNI-V – India proudly entered the exclusive club as the sixth country on 19 April 2012, when its Long-range Ballistic Missile took to sky on its maiden flight and reached the pre-designated target point over 5000 km away in the Indian Ocean with remarkable accuracy. The missile which was launched from Wheeler Island off Orissa Coast incorporates many indigenously developed technologies.  These include the composite rocket motor, state-of-the-art avionics, 5th generation ‘On Board Computer’ distributed architecture, highly accurate Ring Laser Gyro-based inertial navigation system (RINS), reliable redundant micro navigation system and the re-entry kit shield that withstands temperature with more than 4000 degree celsius ensuring that avionics function normally by maintaining an inside temperature less than 50 degreescelcius.
AGNI-IV – The 4000 km range nuclear capable ballistic missile Agni-IV was successfully flight tested on 19 Sep 2012.  The long-range missile propelled by composite rocket motor technology was tested for its cool capability.  Launched from road mobile launcher, it reached the predefined target in about 20 minutes.
With Agni-I, Agni-II, Agni-III andPrithvi P-IIsurface to surface missile and also its naval version Dhanushalready in the arsenal of the Indian Armed Forces, the missile from the production lots were flight tested by the Armed Forces as part of training exercises to ensure defence preparedness. Thus, Agni-I, India’s 700 km range ballistic missile had its flight tests on 13 July and 12 Dec 2012.
The 2000 km range ballistice missile Agni-II and Agni-III with a range of 3000 km were test fired on 09 Aug and 21 Sept 2012 respectively.
The 350 km range surface-to-surface strategic missile Prithvi (P-II) was successfully flight tested on 25 Aug and 04 Oct 2012 from ITR Chandipur, Odisha.  While its naval version Dhanush was test fired from a naval ship off the coast of Balasore, Odisha on 05 Oct 2012.  The tests were like textbook launches meeting all mission objectives and the missiles reached the target points with high accuracy.
Brah-Mos Block III version with advanced guidance algorithm was flight tested on 28 Mar 2012 from ITR Balasore.  The missile flew through the designated 290 kms distance at Mach 2.8 and achieved high precision with steep dive.  


DRDO has developed a two-layer Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) capability against missiles with range upto 2000 km class. Both the exo and endo atmospheric interception have been demonstrated with direct hits leading to disintegration of target missile. 
The Interceptor Missile AAD launched by the Scientists of DRDO on 23 Nov 2012 from Wheeler’s Island, Odisha, successfully destroyed the incoming Ballistic Missile at an altitude of 15 Kms. The target missile, a modified version of Prithvi, mimicking the enemy’s ballistic missile, was launched from Launch Complex III, Chandipur. Long Range Radar and MFC Radar located far away could detect the Missile from take-off and tracked it through its entire path. The total trajectory of the incoming Missile was continuously estimated by the guidance computer and subsequently the AAD Missile was launched at an appropriate time to counter and kill the ballistic missile.   
In this mission, a special feature of intercepting multiple target with multiple interceptor was demonstrated successfully.The complete Radar Systems, Communication Networks, Launch Computers, Target update Systems and state of the art Avionics have been completely proven in this Mission.

AKASH AIR DEFENCE SYSTEM - Induction and productionisation of Akash, the medium range air defence system with multi-target, multi directional capability is another shining achievement. The production value of Akash missile systems ordered by Army and Air Force is over Rs 23,000 crores. Orders for two Army regiments and six Air Force Squadrons are under execution.

LONG RANGE SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILE (LRSAM) - Control and Navigation Tests (CNT) for LRSAM, a joint development Programme between DRDO and Israel Aerospace Industry (IAI), to develop an Advanced Naval Air Defence System for Indian Navy) were conducted on 16th and 18th July 2012. All Planned mission objectives were fully met in both the tests. The missiles showed good navigation and control performance. DRDO is the Prime Development Agency and IAI the design authority for supply, installation and final acceptance. 

NAG ANTI-TANK MISSILE -  the fire and forget anti-tank missile with top attack capability is another important missile developed by DRDO. Its helicopter mounted version, Helina, underwent 2 successful flights from ground launcher proving full range of the missile.

LIGHT COMBAT AIRCRAFT–NAVY (LCA-Navy) - had its first flight on 27th April 2012 followed by flights during month of Jun/Jul 2012. Initial Operation Clearance of this aircraft is expected by Dec 2014. LCA, country’s first indigenous modern Light Combat Aircraft with four variants (air force, Navy and their trainer versions), is a precision weapon launch platform to carry a range of Air to Air missile, unguided rockets and bombs.  The aircraft is integrated with advanced cockpit, digital avionics and weapons interface, to provide effective point and shoot capability with quick turnaround time.  A Shore based Test facility (SBTF); one of its kind in Asia and third in the world; developed by DRDO at Naval Air Station INS Hansa, Goa is now ready for use. Besides testing of LCA-Navy, the test facility will also be used for training of pilots on LCA - Navy and MiG29K aircraft. 

AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING AND CONTROL SYSTEM (AEW&C) -  In a landmark event the first EMB-145I  aircraft fully modified for the indigenous Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW&C) landed on Indian soil at CABS (Centre for Airborne Systems, Bangalore, a DRDO laboratory) on 23 Aug 2012. 

UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAVs) - There have been significant achievements in the field of UAVs.  NISHANT, with its ground control system has been made ready for the Army after confirmatory trials.  An indigenous Wankel rotary engine has been developed by DRDO jointly with NAL, Bangalore, for powering UAVs like NISHANT. Rotary engine technology, especially suited for such applications, is the first of its kind in India.  Orders for Lakshya II pilotless target aircraft; capable of flying in sea skimming mode and tree top heights; are expected from the Services after successful demonstration to them. Similarly, UAV Rustom-I, a forerunner to Mediun Altitude Long Range (MALE) UAV Rustom-2, had series of successful trials. Indigenously designed  and  developed  RUSTOM-1 underwent series of successful test flights.  This UAV has the potential to be used for military missions like Reconnaissance, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, Target Designation, Communications Relay, Battle Damage Assessment and Signal  Intelligence.  A mini UAV -‘NETRA’, especially suited for Low intensity conflict operations was inducted by the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF). ‘NETRA’ has four high speed propellers allowing it to take off and land vertically. Similarly a fixed wing mini UAV for low intensity conflict was demonstrated to security forces at various locations for surveillance within the range of 10 kms. It is also useful in reconnaissance over hills.
ELECTRONIC WARFARE - There has been a significant achievement in the Electronic Warfare Area which includes integration and testing of country’s first indigenous active array radar, operationalisation of Combat Information Decision Support System (CIDSS) and development and testing of laser based ordnance Disposal System and advanced Laser Guided Bomb Tester.  The initial development of Indira-1, a short range 2D system has now been extended to high power 3D system like 3D Central Acquisition Radar and Weapon Locating Radar (WLR) based on phased array.  The DRDOs radar warning receivers have been selected to upgrade most of Indian Air Force aircrafts like MiG 21, MiG 29, SU 30MKI, MiG 27 and Jaguars. 
MBT ARJUN MK-II -Arjun Mk-II the advanced version of India’s first main battle tank Arjun, commenced its user trials in record time of 2 yrs. The Arjun Mk-II incorporates 89 improvements over the Arjun Mk-I, of which, two regiments are already in service. 

Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Smerch Rockets - Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a Joint Venture with M/s Rosoboronexport, Russia and M/s Splav “SPA”, Russia to manufacture five versions of SmerchRockets based on the technology received from Russia. The SmerchRockets are technologically superior having a range of 70-80- kms. With formation of this Joint Venture, a new Chapter in the Indo-Russian Friendship has commenced.

Joint Venture for Multi-role Transport Aircraft (MTA) - Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL), the aerospace major, signed the Preliminary Design Phase (PDP) Contract on 12 October 2012with the United Aircraft Corporation - Transport Aircraft (UAC-TA), the Russian partner and their JV-Multirole Transport Aircraft Ltd (MTAL) for the Multirole Transport Aircraft (MTA) project as a follow on contract of the General Contract signed between the three parties in May 2012. “With this HAL and UAC-TA will start the preliminary designwork immediately at Moscow. 


Mi-17 V5 Helicopter Inducted into IAF

Mi-17 V5 helicopter was inducted into the Indian Air Force (IAF) on 17 February 2012. This helicopter falls in the category of armed helicopter, with substantial and effective firepower with the latest and more powerful engines that will greatly enhance its payload carriage capability at higher altitudes.
Mi-17 V5,  an upgrade of Mi-17 in the medium-lift category, is equipped with  state-of-the-art avionics and on-board Navigation Systems.  It is a glass cockpit variant; the first of its kind to get inducted into the IAF.  It has onboard weather radar, state of the art autopilot and is compatible with the latest Generation (Gen-III) Night vision Goggles.  With this, the helicopter can undertake all-weather, day and night operations in any kind of terrain. The helicopter is also equipped with a Bambi-Bucket that can be used for fire fighting.  It is also fitted with a powerful winch–a feature useful in the Disaster Relief Operations in restricted areas where landing is not possible.

INS Chakra

Indian Navy inducted INS Chakra to itsunder water fleet on 04th April 2012 at Vishakhapatnam.  Defence Minister Shri AK Antony inducted the submarine into the fleet of Eastern Naval Command.  This four plus generation Russian origin submarine is capable of fulfilling multiple roles and will go a long way in strengthening Navy’s blue water operating capability.  

INS Sahyadri

The third of the follow-on class indigenous stealth frigate was commissioned on 21 July 2012 at Mazagaon Dock Limited, Mumbai by the Defence Minister Shri AK Antony.  Conceived and designed by Indian Navy Design Team this Shivalik class frigate will be mainstay frigate of the Navy in the 21st Century.

INS Teg and Tarkash

The First and Second of the three Talwar-class stealth frigates constructed at Yantar Shipyard, Kalinigrad Russia were inducted into Indian Navy on 27 April and 09 November 2012 respectively by the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Southern Naval Command.  These multi-role stealth frigate with advanced combat suits are fitted with formidable array of weapons and sensors onboard the Ship including the super-sonic BrahMos missile system and advance surface-to-air missile system. 

Commissioning of Indian Coast Guard Ship H-187, H-188 and H-189

To provide a boost to coastal security Indian Coast Guard Ship H-187, the first of the series of twelve Air Cushion Vehicles (ACVs), was commissioned at Okha on 11 June 2012 by Vice Admiral MP Muralidharan, DG Coast Guard.  The 21 meter long ACV (hovercraft) designed and built by GriffenHaverwork Limited (GHL), UK displaces 31 tonnes and can achieve a maximum speed of 45 knots.  The ACV is capable of undertaking multi-farious tasks such as surveillance, interdiction, search and rescue  and responding assistance to small boats / crafts in distress at Sea.
The second in the series, H-188 was commissioned at Haldia by Inspector General of Coast Guard Shri Rajendra Singh on 20 Nov 2012.
The third ACV in this series, H-189 was commissioned in Mumbai by Vice Admiral SK Sinha FOC-in-C Western Naval Command.  With the commissioning of H-189, the force level of Indian Coast Guard has gone up to 77 ships and First Attack Boats and with the planned induction the force level would be doubling by 2018.

Commission of Indian Coast Guard Ship ‘Samudra Paheredar’

Indian Coast Guard Ship 'SamudraPaheredar', the second of the series of three Pollution Control Vessels (PCVs) being built by M/s ABG Shipyard, Surat was commissioned by Admiral NirmalVerma, the then Chief of the Naval Staff in July 2012.
The 95m long indigenous PCV displaces 4300 tonnes and can achieve a maximum speed of 20.5 knots with an endurance of 6500 nautical miles.The ship’s primary role is pollution response at sea and is equipped with the most advanced and sophisticated pollution response and control equipment for mitigating oil spills, which include containment equipment like hi-sprint booms and river booms, recovery devices like skimmers and side sweeping arms. The ship is capable of unhindered oil recovery operations with storage tank capacity of 500 KL in addition to inflatable barges.
The ship is installed with modern Integrated Platform Management System and Power Management System, which makes it unique for unmanned machinery operations. It is also fitted with Dynamic Positioning System for fire fighting and pollution response operations and an infra-red surveillance system for night surveillance.

Commissioning of First Inshore Patrol Vessel (IPV) ‘Rani Abbakka’

The Indian Coast Guard Ship Rani Abbakka, the 1st of a series of five Inshore Patrol Vessel (IPV) built at M/s HSL, was commissioned at Visakhapatnam by the then Minister of State for Defence Dr.MM PallamRaju,on 20 Jan 2012.
The 50 meter indigenous IPV displaces 300 tonnes and can achieve a maximum speed of 31.5 Knots with an endurance of 1500 nautical miles.The special features of the ship include an Integrated Bridge System (IBS), Machinery Control System (IMCS), and an indigenously built Gun Mount with Fire Control System. The ship is designed to carry one Rigid Inflatable Boat and two Geminis for Search and Rescue, Law Enforcement and Maritime Patrol.
Commissioning Of ICGS ‘Dahanu’
Coast Guard Station Dahanu, the third Coast Guard station in Maharashtra, was commissioned by Vice Admiral MP Muralidharan, Director General Indian Coast Guard at Dahanu on 22 March 2012.
The station is part of ongoing efforts by the Coast Guard to strengthen coastal security along the Indian coastline. The station at Dahanu will help augment patrolling along the north Maharshtra coast and prevent illicit activity such as infiltration and smuggling.
Commissioning  Of ICGS Krishnapatnam
Coast Guard Station Krishnapatnam, the third Coast Guard Station in Andhra Pradesh, was commissioned in Andhra Pradesh by Dr MM PallamRaju, the then Raksha Rajya Mantri on June 18, 2012.
The establishment of a Station at Krishnapatnam is part of the ongoing efforts by the Coast Guard to strengthen coastal security in the coastal states of the nation. 

Commissionig of Coast Guard Station Karaikal 

Coast Guard Station Karaikal, the fifth CG station on the Puducherry - Tamil Nadu coastline was commissioned by Vice Admiral MP Muralidharan, Director General Indian Coast Guard at Karaikal  on 25 July 2012.
The station is part of ongoing efforts by the Coast Guard to strengthen coastal security along the Indian coastline.  The station at Karaikal will help augment patrolling along the east coast and prevent illicit activities such as infiltration, smuggling and illegal fishing.

Commissioning of Naval Base INS ‘DweepRakshak’ and ‘BAAZ‘

Naval base INS ‘DweepRakshak’ was commissioned in Lakshadweep Islands and INS ‘Baaz’ was commissioned in Andaman Islands (Campbell Bay) in 2012.  Commissioning of these full fledged naval bases was another milestone in the commitment of Indian Navy in maintaining effective coastal surveillance and defence capability.  The positioning of radar stations and other surveillance measures will add positive control over movement of Ships and intelligence gathering.


Inauguration of StaticSensors Project in Mumbai and Porbandar

With the inauguration of the Static Sensors Project of Coastal Surveillance Network by the Defence Minister Shri AK Antony on 25 Aug 2012, the coastal security mechanism got a big boost. Shri Antony said that the patching up of National Automatic Identification System Network (AIS) and Vessel Traffic System (VTS) of Gulf of Khambat, along with the Coastal Security Network, will help us in identifying a friend or foe in our waters.
Under Phase I of Coastal Surveillance Network, Coastal Static Sensors will be put up at 46 locations. Out of these, the mainland radars are expected to be operationalised later this year, while those on the island territories will become operational next year.

Kerala Cluster of Coastal Radar NetworkCommissioned

The Remote Operating Station (ROS) of the coastal surveillance sensor chain of Kerala cluster was inaugurated by Vice Admiral MP Muralidharan, Director General Indian Coast Guard at the Coast Guard District Headquarters No 4 Fort Kochi on 15 Sept 2012.    Speaking on the occasion, Vice Admiral Muralidharan highlighted the efforts of BEL the agency who executed the project, Department of  Lighthouses and Light Ships , MTNL, BSNL, and ISRO in seeing the project through.
In Kerala, the feed and data from the four coastal surveillance radars at Mount Dilli in Ezhimala, Ponnani, Vypin and Kollam will be available at the ROS Fort Kochi.  Two more additional sensors will be installed at Alapuzha and Azhikode in the phase two of the project.

Step towards Eastern Coast Sensitisation

Minister of State for Defence Shri Jitendra Singh inaugurated the Chain of Static Sensor at Vishakhapatnam on 23 Nov 2012, which will provide real time surveillance cover up to 25 nautical miles along the coast line. Post 26/11 terrorist attacks in Mumbai, the emergent need to strengthen coastal security was recognized by the Government and on recommendation made by the Group of Ministers, Indian Coast Guard was delegated to implement the project. With the inauguration of Eastern clusters at Vishakhapatnam, the phase-I of implementation of CSN at mainland is completed.


• Exercise YUDH ABHYAS is part of joint exercises between the Indian and United States Armies since 2005, agreed upon under the New Framework of India-US Defence Relationship. Commencing at the platoon level, the exercise graduated to a command post (CPX) and field training exercise (FTX).
The seventh edition of Yudh Abhyas commenced on 05 March 12 in two locations under the South Western Command. The US Army contingent is from the US Army Pacific (USARPAC), part of their Pacific Command (PACOM). The Command Post Exercise has an engineer brigade headquarters with its planners from both sides, while the Field Training Exercise comprises troops of 2nd Squadron 14th US Cavalry Regiment from 25th Infantry Division,Hawaii, along with a platoon of Strykers, and a similar sized Indian Army contingent of mechanized infantry. 
Navies of India and Japan conducted routine passage exercises ‘PASSEX’ during the visit of Japanese ships to Indian ports this year.
INS Sudarshini sets sail for ASEAN Sailing Expedition from Kochi on 13 Sept 2012.  This expedition was organised to celebrate India’s warm ties with the countries of Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN).  Admiral DK Joshi flagged off the six months voyage, a unique collaborative venture of Ministry of Defence and Ministry of External Affairs.  The voyage commemorates 20 years of dialogue partnerships.  During the course of voyage, 12,000 nautical expedition of INS Sudarshini will visit 13 ports in nine countries in South East Asia.
The 15 nation Naval Exercise ‘MILAN-2012’, a biennial congregation of Littoral Navies of the Asia-Pacific region, hosted by the Indian Navy, commenced at Port Blair, in Andaman and Nicobar islands, on 01 February 2012.  It significantly contributed in strengthening cooperation among the Navies of 14 countries including Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Myanmar, New Zealand, Philippines, Seychelles, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand.
‘Theatre Level Readiness and Operational Exercise (TROPEX)’ was held on 07-08 February 2012 at Vishakhapatnam by Eastern Naval Command.  Defence Minister Shri AK Antony, who inaugurated the exercise, spent two days with the Indian Navy and he was given a glimpse of the expansive scope and scale of the Indian Navy’s annual exercise.
Indian and Indonesian Armies participated in the ‘Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare Training Drill’in March 2012.Training together to counter the scourge of insurgency in various contemporary scenarios including jungle warfare, the operational part of the first-ever platoon-level joint training exercise – EX GARUDA SHAKTI – of the armies of India and Indonesia, concluded successfully at the Indian Army's elite 'Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School’ (CIJWS), Vairengte in Mizoram.
Exercise ‘Shoor Veer’ is based on the integrated theatre battle concept
under South Western Army Command with the elite Strike Corps in the lead,
supported by Chetak Corps and all other relevant elements of South Western
The Army and IAF has tested new battle fighting concepts and
doctrines during the exercise with real time pictures of the battle zone
provided to a centralized command and control centre from fighter jets,
unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and attack helicopters, waging war in
network centric environment and massed tank drills backed by long range
artillery guns.  
More than 300 combat vehicles including main battle tank
T-90, T-72, long range 150mm artillery guns, multi barrel rockets and about
60000 troops has taken part in this massive major exercise in Rajasthan.  
A major highlight of the joint exercise was the integrated air-land
war-fighting machinery and the synergy between the Indian Army and IAF.
Indian Air Force (IAF) conducted Exercise ‘PRALAY’ in the North East on 29 February 2012.